About PHDA

Who We Are

Partners for Health and Development in Africa (PHDA) is a non-profit organization registered in Kenya, working in the health and development fields in Kenya and elsewhere in Africa.

PHDA is affiliated with the University of Manitoba, building on its 45-year legacy of successful STI and HIV research, prevention, care and treatment programs in Kenya and Africa.

Our History

Over the past 45 years, the University of Manitoba has delivered a large number of STI/HIV/AIDS-related research, prevention, care and support projects and programs in several developing countries, working with various governmental, non-governmental and community-based organizations.  The program in Kenya was initiated in 1979 in collaboration with the University of Nairobi and now consists of three broad sets of activities.  The first is a wide range of research projects, supported by various research funding agencies, which encompass a broad spectrum of STI and HIV-related research. The second area of activity comprises HIV prevention, care and support programs designed to implement the HIV and STI prevention lessons and strategies learned through research efforts and scale up prevention and care efforts. These activities have been funded by various donor agencies over the years, including governmental agencies and private foundations.  The third area of activity involves training and capacity building, activities that various donors have also funded.  Through these programs, hundreds of Kenyan and international scientists and program implementers have been trained across a broad spectrum of research, clinical, laboratory and public health disciplines. 

Herbert Nsanze and Peter Plot in the 1980's
Dr Elizabeth Ngugi, and STI Phase 2 researcher during the 1990s
J.O Ndinya Achola and Frank Plumer in the 1980s

The work of the University of Manitoba and its partners in Kenya has generated much of what we now know about the HIV epidemic in Africa and has had an enormous impact on global STI/HIV/AIDS-related health policy. Some of the ground-breaking achievements of the research team include:

  • The early identification and confirmation that there is indeed a largely heterosexually transmitted epidemic of HIV in Africa.
  • The vital role of “conventional” STIs in enhancing and facilitating HIV infection.
  • Understanding the vital role of breastfeeding in the transmission of HIV from mothers to children.
  • The finding that hormonal contraceptive methods can facilitate HIV transmission.
  • The crucial protective effect of male circumcision for HIV acquisition in men.
  • Identifying highly HIV-exposed FSWs who are resistant to HIV infection and the subsequent understanding of acquired immunity to HIV.
  • The importance of focused prevention programs for FSWs and their clients in reducing HIV transmission in both of these groups and the general community.

By implementing simple strategies for controlling the sexual spread of HIV, focusing on the most at-risk populations, the basis was laid for a generation of HIV prevention programming.  In particular, the University of Manitoba program showed that vulnerable populations, particularly female sex workers and their clients, were central to HIV transmission in the population.

Preventing FSWs from acquiring HIV and promoting condom use with all of their partners has reduced HIV transmission dramatically. The team’s work on male circumcision over 20 years culminated in a major randomized clinical trial conducted in Kenya, led by the University of Manitoba and the University of Nairobi. 


This work, confirmed in two other trials, showed that male circumcision confers a 60% reduction in risk for acquiring HIV infection among young men.  As a result, male circumcision has been endorsed as an important HIV prevention measure by UNAIDS and WHO, and programs to expand male circumcision services have been developed throughout eastern and southern Africa.  Perhaps the most widely known scientific contribution from the research team has been discovering that a proportion of female sex workers are resistant to HIV infection, likely through acquired immunity.  The team has pursued this line of research for over 20 years, and landmark studies have resulted in alterations of the design of HIV vaccines now under development.

The Canadian Minister for health during a visit to the Majengo clinic in the early 2000s
University of Manitoba officials during a visit to Kenya programs in the early 2000s

The University of Manitoba has since then extended its experience to Asia and other parts of Africa.  Building on experience from Kenya, HIV prevention programs have been implemented in India, Pakistan and Nigeria as important country platforms. UoM has provided technical support to several other countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean. Several innovative approaches to HIV prevention and care, including new approaches to epidemic appraisal and the mapping of key populations (KPs); micro-planning techniques for program analysis and development; the use of individual-based behavioural tracking systems; and innovative approaches to enhancing the enabling environment, including addressing violence, reducing stigma and discrimination, and expanding access to social entitlements have been the contributions of UoM and its partners.

The University of Manitoba registered a local Kenyan organization in 2012 and named it Partners for Health and Development in Africa (PHDA). In 2014, PHDA formally took over the implementation of all research and programmes under the University of Manitoba banner. PHDA continues to be affiliated with the University of Manitoba and builds on a legacy of successful HIV and AIDS research, programmes and partnerships.  

Our Journey


UM conducts HIV, STI and MNCH related research and programmes


UM forms PHDA

PHDA registered as an NGO


Transitions research

S2S project

TRUST project


Inherits SWOP project

KPTSU  embedded with NASCOP

Research projects


PACT Endeleza project


TA to LINKAGES project

SRHR and sustainable development


PreP pilot project




HIVST project

Maisha Fiti Study


Evaluation of AGYW projects

Pantograph Study

Tatu Pamoja Study


South to South learning Network (SSLN)

HIV Landscape Assessment


Heart of Stigma project

CONNECT project

Strengthening the effectiveness of the HIV prevention response in Kenya




Enhanced Polling Booth Survey Pilot and Documentation


WHO Solidarity (Covid Vaccine)

Asprin Study





Expanded Polling Booth Survey



Healthy Communities in Africa

Our Mission

Increasing access to health for disadvantaged communities in Africa through research, programme development and delivery, systems strengthening and partnerships

Our Core Values

Integrity, Teamwork, Professionalism, Equity, and Accountability

Our Approach

Our programmes are rooted in the programme science approach, which is defined as the systematic application of theoretical and empirical knowledge to optimise public health programmes’ scale, quality, and impact. It is an iterative, multi-phase research and programme framework which drives scientific inquiry, and maximizes the population-level impact by optimizing the right strategies for the right population at the appropriate time. This approach also brings together programme implementers, academicians, researchers, policymakers, government departments, communities, and community-based organizations into building strong and sustained partnerships.

Our Areas of Focus

PHDA focuses on Global Health with specific interest areas of:

HIV & Aids


Maternal & Child Health

Mental Health

Adolescent Health

Where We Work

Headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, with teams based in several counties of Kenya.

Most of our research and programme delivery work is in Kenya. Through technical support and partnerships, we also work in 15 other African countries, including Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Malawi, Lesotho, Namibia, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Uganda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eswatini and South Sudan.


In addition to pioneering research in the areas of HIV and STI, the team has also conducted a broad spectrum of health research and generated evidence for the development of programmes and policies.

Some of our recent focus areas are:

  • Relationship between violence, mental health, and risk of HIV infection
  • The biological determinant of HIV acquisition
  • Impact of introduction of new products like HIV self-testing
  • Understanding the HIV prevention landscape in Kenya

Programme Development & Delivery

PHDA and University of Manitoba have implemented programmes for more than two decades. The team was among the first to initiate HIV prevention and treatment programmes with sex workers in Kenya. PHDA currently implements:

  • The Sex Workers Outreach Project (SWOP) which reaches 35,000 female sex workers and men who have sex with men in Nairobi.
  • Project in partnership with the National Kenya Police to integrate key population curriculum into the pre-service police training curriculum
  • Evaluation of an HIV prevention programme with Adolescent Girls and Young Women (AGYW) in Nyeri, Kenya
  • Assessment of Global Fund supported AGYW projects in Malawi, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Cameroon
  • Evaluation of a pilot project with young women who sell sex and young men who have sex with men


PHDA collaborates with several organisations to implement its programmes. The partnerships are with

  • Academic and research institutions like the University of Nairobi, Aga Khan University, KEMRI, University of Maryland
  • Government Institutions like the National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP), National AIDS Control Council (NACC), county governments
  • Civil society organisations especially community led organisations
  • Funders like Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USAID, CDC, OSIEA, Fund for Innovation and Transformation, IAVI

Systems Strengthening

PHDA has prioritised strengthening systems primarily within the government to sustain the gains.

  • Set up a Technical Support Unit, embedded within the National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP) and the National AIDS Control Council (NACC), Ministry of Health, Kenya, to scale up

    HIV prevention programs and services in Kenya.

  • Implement a South to South Learning network with 10 African Countries in partnership with Genesis Analytics under the Global Prevention Coalition, UNAIDS

Assessing Outcomes in HIV Prevention and treatment Programmes with Key Populations, in Nairobi, Kenya: enhanced Polling Booth Survey (ePBS)

The study aims to assess the HIV prevention outcomes in programmes with female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nairobi, Kenya. The study will use polling booth method, a novel data collection tool used to collect behavioral data. It is a group interview method in which individuals provide responses through a ballot box in an unlinked and anonymous way. The sample size for the quantitative survey is 680 FSW and 379 MSM. Sampling procedure will use a two-stage i) random selection of participants ii) HIV rapid tests will be conducted for all consenting participants; urine rapid tests will be conducted for all those who report to be on PrEP to test for tenofovir and blood samples will be collected from all those who are positive to test for HIV recency and viral suppression.


  • To estimate the incidence and prevalence of HIV among key populations (female sex workers and men who have sex with men) in Nairobi, Kenya
  • To assess biomedical (condom use, PrEP uptake, 95-95-95 cascade), behavioural (knowledge and risk behaviours) and structural outcomes (experience of violence, stigma and discrimination) of the KP programme in Nairobi, Kenya
  • To assess access and use of comprehensive package of HIV prevention and treatment services among key populations in Nairobi, Kenya
  • To understand the barriers contributing to gaps in access and utilization of services among key populations

Project Initiated 2023

The study was initiated in March 2023.

The study population includes two key population groups: female sex workers and men who have sex with men and will take place in 4 groups where a sample size of each group will be divided by an average of 10-12 respondents per Polling Booth Surveys (PBS) to arrive at the number of PBS to be conducted. The study will be using the list of locations and the population size estimation of mapping conducted in the year 2018 and a will take place in 17 sub-counties in Nairobi county.


This study is funded by Bill and Melinda Gate Foundation (BMGF)